Airliners, how jet engines, windows and safety systems are made

What happens inside an airplane jet engine? And how do the engines, windows and safety systems of a passenger plane work?

Jet engine


Modern airliners are equipped with jet engines that push the plane forward. A jet, or jet, engine works by capturing and compressing air from its surroundings. This compressed air is then mixed with fuel and ignited, generating gas at high pressure and temperature.

The rapid expulsion of these gases through the rear nozzle produces a forward force called push. This cycle repeats continuously, providing the thrust needed to move the plane forward. One thing that not everyone knows is that inside the engine there is a thrust reverser group, that is, a system that reverses the thrust of the turbine in the opposite direction to the forward movement, helping the aircraft to stop even on runways that are very short compared to standards.

The windows and doors


What are airplane windows made of? First of all, the ones in the cockpit are not like the ones in the fuselage. Rather than windows, it would be more appropriate to call them windows and they are hyper-resistant, obviously. In fact, they are composed of three layers of reinforced glass to cushion impacts. The passenger windows are made of acrylic glass and help support the structural integrity of the fuselage.


To enter the plane, there are two main doors, one in front and one in back, with service doors on the opposite side. Under the plane, on the right side, there are the loading access doors where the suitcases are stored. Corresponding to the wings, there are two emergency doors, the ones that the stewardesses show us during the safety instructions.

But how on earth do the doors of an airplane open? This question is not trivial, in fact there is a very specific procedure. In fact the doors must be first before being opened disarmed. There is a lever on the door that disables the opening of the emergency slide: once this lever is raised, a flashing red warning light turns on. overpressure, visible from both inside and outside the door. As long as the light is on, it means that there is still a pressure difference between inside and outside. The door therefore cannot be opened yet. When the light goes out it means that pressure equilibrium has been reached and the door can open.

Security systems

The aircraft, to function to the best of its possibilities, is equipped with various vital systems that manage all flight activitieslike: con-board computer and lighting, hydraulic systems, pressurization and emergency systems. Let’s see the main ones.



The system of pressurization of the aircraft works by taking external air and compressing it through pumps connected to the engines. Before entering the cabin, this compressed air passes through a heat exchanger which cools it. This process is critical to ensuring a comfortable environment for passengers and crew during flight, especially at high altitudes where natural atmospheric pressure is reduced. The air is distributed through a network of tubes that extends from the cockpit to above each seat and into other areas of the plane.

Not everyone knows that planes are also equipped with various systems to melt the ice that accumulates on the surfaces of the wings.

Emergency system


The emergency system of an airliner is designed to ensure the safety of passengers and crew in critical situations.

In case of cabin depressurization, the oxygen masks they activate automatically and, thanks to a generator placed above each row of seats, they are able to provide approximately 13 minutes of oxygen per passenger.

The you slip mounted on the doors, however, they are stored in special compartments under each door for passengers and crew. A lever in the door activates the opening mechanism of the slides, which open automatically. In the event of a total interruption of the electricity supply, a compressed air turbine, called RAT (Ram Air Turbine), deploys automatically and uses the aircraft’s movement in the air to generate emergency electrical power. This energy keeps the emergency systems, landing gear and emergency hydraulic system running.

Finally, the so-called is positioned on the tail of the vehicle “black box”, which is essentially a flight data recorder that monitors and records the last hours of flight in the event of an accident, then allowing the authorities to reconstruct the events before the accident, also equipped with an underwater beacon that emits a signal for 90 days to locate the aircraft.