Multiple myeloma, symptoms and how to treat it

Giovanni Allevi made a moving return to the stage of Sanremo 2024 after a long and difficult battle against the multiple myeloma, a disease that has roots in the bone marrow. His diagnosis came in 2022, forcing him into a temporary retreat from the music scenes he loves so much.

His return was welcomed with great enthusiasm and emotion by the public and the orchestra of the Festival hosted again this year by Amadeus. The Master openly shared his experience with the public. He spoke of the difficulties and pains he faced during his healing pathbut also of Force and of determination who supported him. But let’s find out what multiple myeloma is and how it is treated.

Multiple myeloma, what it is and its causes

The multiple myeloma it is a complex disease, difficult to treat and above all extremely painful because it is a serious malignant tumor. Unfortunately, to date there are no safe therapies that reverse myeloma, even if research is constantly committed to the development of new therapeutic strategies and to improve life prospects.

It is a tumor that affects the plasma cellsspecific cells of the bone marrow responsible for the production of antibodies to fight infections. These plasma cells, for reasons still unknown, begin to multiply uncontrollably, giving rise to a population of genetically identical cells called clones, which produce large amounts of a single type of antibody known as the M protein.

Tumor plasma cells can invade different organs and tissues while producing antibodies can damage vital organs like kidneys and bones. This leads to a variety of symptoms, including bone pain, fractures, anemia, recurrent infections, and thrombocytopenia.

To date, the exact details are not known causes precise ones that lead to getting sick, even if there are some factors that can increase the risk of onset, such as genes. People with first-degree relatives with myeloma have a slightly increased risk of developing the disease. Age and sex are also decisive, in fact the risk of developing myeloma usually increases with age and men are more affected (generally over 65 years). Furthermore, research conducted on the matter has also indicated that one of the factors responsible for DNA damage is represented by the excessive accumulation of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, both from sunlight and from tanning lamps.

How multiple myeloma is treated

There diagnosis of multiple myeloma occurs through test to measure the amounts of antibodies in the blood and urine, and is confirmed by bone marrow biopsy.

The treatment of multiple myeloma often involves a combination of chemotherapy drugs, corticosteroids, and other agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies. Radiotherapy may be used to treat bone pain, while stem cell transplant may be considered for patients who respond to chemotherapy.

Multiple myeloma is a truly difficult disease to cure completely, even if, as demonstrated in the last conference held in San Diego, California,American Society of Hematologyresearch has made giant strides in recent years, with new therapies that give rise to hope for tumor eradication at least for a large percentage of patients.