Seeing it be born new States It’s not really an everyday thing. In some cases it may happen that small communities proclaim their own independence and claim a well-defined territory for themselves. These communities, however, do not always enjoy the recognition ofUN. In other cases, however, countries follow a “regular” and internationally recognized path, managing to obtain a own autonomy to all effects. This is the case of Southern Sudan, the youngest state in the world, born in Africa in 2011 after breaking away from Sudan following two bloody civil wars. The country has no access to the sea and is located in central-eastern Africa. Let’s discover its characteristics in this article.
- 1The youngest country on the planet
- 2The geography of South Sudan
- 3Recent history and independence
- 4Frictions with Sudan and other issues
The youngest country on the planet
South Sudan is recognized by the United Nations Organization (of which it is now part) as “younger” state, i.e. the one born most recently. In fact, he obtained his independence from Sudan in 2011 and, in addition to having joined the UN, it is now also part of theAfrican Union, a supranational organization that includes more than fifty states on the continent. South Sudan has also committed to signing the Geneva Conventionsa set of treaties that form the basis of humanitarian rightsinternational and otherwise, of war victimsboth military and civilian.
The geography of South Sudan
South Sudan, officially Republic of South Sudanis a state ofCentral-Eastern Africa landlocked. It borders Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic. The territory is characterized by large plains And highlandsmostly covered by forests tropical (the country is in fact located just above the equator), vast prairies And marshy areas.
The State today is to all intents and purposes one federal presidential republic which it includes within it ten federal states (wilaya) incorporated into three different ones provinces (mudiriya): Bahr al-Ghazal (the north-western province), High Nile (the north-eastern province) ed Equatorial (the southern province).
With a population of just under 11 million inhabitantsSouth Sudan is one of the least populous countries in Africa and the small capital Juba today includes little more than 500 000 people. The official language of the country isEnglishbut they also speak to each otherArabic And Sub-Saharan languages and dialectsand the coin is the GBP Sudanesea legacy of Sudan’s colonial past under British rule.
Recent history and independence
The history of Sudan and South Sudan is long and troubled and has witnessed the domination by foreign powers and to innumerable ones conflicts interior of an ethnic and political nature. From the Second World War until the early 2000s they were fought two violent civil wars among present-day Sudan (then simply the northern part of Sudan), by majority Muslimand present-day South Sudan (then the southern part of Sudan), by a majority Christian And animist.
The South was armed byELPSL’Sudan People’s Liberation Army and supported by an equivalent political movement. Decades of conflict have claimed the lives of two and a half million of people and more than double have fled due to violence, extreme poverty and persecution.
L’Naivasha Agreement of 2005 ended the civil war and, in January 2011, the citizens of what is now South Sudan were called to vote on a referendum for independence of the country, which obtained almost 99% of the votes. For just over a decade, therefore, South Sudan has been an independent and recognized state.
Frictions with Sudan and other issues
Political and economic tensions still persist between Sudan and South Sudan and some border areas are still disputed. Furthermore, South Sudan, with more than 50 tribesis still far from reaching a real one unit national: between 2013 and 2020 a further conflict broke out, in which the exponents of two different ethnic groups (dinka And nuer) clashed violently for control of the newly established state. The tragic toll of the South Sudanese civil war almost matters 400 thousand victims and several million refugees.
Today, in many areas of South Sudan the population still lives in conditions dramatic. There poverty extreme and the lack of infrastructure and services these are widespread problems and to which are added malnutrition, worrying hygienic-sanitary conditions, epidemics of endemic diseases, such as malariainfections due to contaminated water, frequent abuses, violations of human rights and sexual violence.