Ticks, as with the bite can transmit diseases and how to defend themselves

It's called Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever. And it is potentially a disease very serious, widespread in many countries, including Spain and France. With climate change, in fact, the pathology tends to spread to areas very different from those of Central Asia, the Middle East and some areas of Africa.
Research appearing in Nature Microbiology, coordinated by scholars from the Karolinska Institute, explains how the virus that causes it enters cells. In practice, the virus's access to cells would occur through the LDL cholesterol receptors, which regulate the blood cholesterol control.
The study opens up important perspectives for the treatment of the pathology which currently has no specific cure and can be fatal, especially in the most fragile people. But it also offers the opportunity to take stock of the pathologies transmitted through tick bites: some manifest themselves in distant areas, others are present here. The spring season, in particular, opens the way to this risk. Thanks to its ability to hide, combined with the fact that when it bites the victim the tick emits particular substances that anesthetize the affected area, the animal can in fact transmit infections which manifest themselves even after some time.
Here are some diseases that, in the world, can manifest themselves precisely after the bite of a tick.

What is Crimean-Congo fever

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever was first described in 1944 in Crimea. Since the causative virus was later identified as also responsible for the Congo hemorrhagic fever, the final name given to the disease unites the two regions. Although it is primarily a zoonosis, epidemics have also occurred in humans.
The virus that causes the disease belongs to the Nairovirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family. It is transmitted to animals or humans through the bite of various ticks, the most common of which are those of the Hyalomma genus. Among animals most affected by the infection are cattle, sheep, goats, but also ostriches and other wild animals. The man it can also be infected through contact with the blood or tissues of infected animals; in fact, many cases have occurred among butchers, farmers and veterinarians. Even contact with the blood or tissues of sick people can be infectious.

Why Lyme borreliosis appears

It is a disease caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferitransmitted to humans by the tick Damn Ixodes and from Ixodes ricinus in Europe. It begins in most cases with erythema chronicum migrans, a characteristic expanding skin lesion, migrating arthralgias and flu-like symptoms (localized infection). After a few days, or weeks, the infection spreads through the blood and can cause meningitis, polyneuritis, cardiac conduction disorders, myocarditis, facial nerve paralysis. Months or even years later, after a latency phase, the disease can recur persistently with chronic or intermittent arthritis, chronic encephalopathy, polyneuropathy and other conditions. It must be said that late chronic infection is rather rare: with adequate antibiotic therapy, in fact, the prognosis is generally positive.

How to recognize and treat purpuric fever

It is also called Colorado or Rocky Mountain fever and is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. The bacterium is transmitted to humans by the tick bite Dermacentor Andersoni, who take it by feeding on the blood of infected rodents (squirrels, hedgehogs, etc.) or dogs. After an incubation period, varying from one day to a maximum of two weeks, fever, muscle pain, dizziness, neck pain and stiffness, back pain, headache, eye pain and photophobia quickly arise. Approximately 3-4 days later the maculopapular rash appears, first purplish red and then hemorrhagic (petechial), characterized by cutaneous and mucous hemorrhages, to which may be added tachycardia, restlessness, insomnia, confusional state and convulsions. If treated in time with antibiotics it resolves, otherwise it can be lethal.

What are the characteristics of Omsk hemorrhagic fever

It is a viral disease transmitted by ticks, widespread in Siberia in the Omsk and Novosibirsk regions. The virus responsible for this disease is similar to the one that causes Kyasanur forest hemorrhagic fever (India). The vector of the virus is the tick (Dermacentor pictus And Dermacentor marginatus) which acts as a transporter of the virus from rodents, such as the muskrat, and from humans. After an incubation period of 3-8 days the disease manifests itself with fever, headache, pain in the back and limbs, and fatigue. and with the appearance of a rash on the soft palate. In more serious cases there are hemorrhages especially in the gums and digestive system. Mortality is low, but recovery is rather slow, the febrile period can in fact last up to 2 weeks.

What are European and Japanese encephalitis

They belong to a large series of diseases (encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, meningomyeloencephalitis) of viral origin, transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, which differ depending on the geographical area in which they occur. Central European and Japanese encephalitis are transmitted respectively by a tick (Ixodes ricinus) and by a mosquito (Culex). The viruses responsible for the disease belong to group B of the Flaviviruses, family Togaviridae. The tick can also transmit the virus through eggfurthermore the virus is found in unpasteurized milk of infected animals (cows, sheep and goats). Encephalitis has a common and diphasic symptomatology: acute flu-like onset, brief remission, then recovery with the appearance of neurological signs up to coma. Therapy is symptomatic and the prognosis is reserved, except for benign forms.

What is button fever

Button fever is an acute infectious disease caused by a germ, the Rickettsia conori transmitted to humans by the bite of the dog tick. It is widespread in the Mediterranean basin, in the Middle East and in Africa. The carrier mint, Riphicephalus sanguineus, is a typical dog parasite, but rodents, cattle, sheep and rabbits can also act as a reservoir. The tick itself can be infected by Rickettsia, in which case it can also transmit rickettsiosis through its eggs. The symptoms are: high fever and continues for 1-2 weeks, chills, headache, conjunctivitis, joint and muscle pain. The maculopapular rash appears after 3-4 days on the limbs, trunk, palms of the hands and soles of the feet, with isolated, raised (button-shaped) eruptions. It is treated with antibiotics and the prognosis is benign.

Why tick-borne diseases spread

On the one hand theaverage increase in temperature terrestrial in recent years on the other the progressive increase in wildlife. Add these two factors and you will get the reason for the increase in tick infections, which we have observed since spring. If you are attacked by the tick, the first recommendation is to extract the parasite within twenty-four hours, taking care to remove the entire body and rostrum of the tick and noting the date of the bite, since the appearance of any symptom within a month days of After removing the pet, you must immediately go to a doctor or specialist center to receive the most appropriate treatment for the various manifestations.

How to deal with tick bite

Identifying the tick early is essential, even if it is not always easy. To “attach” to their prey, these enemies use special “bumps”, called chelicerae, through which they cause the first imperceptible “hole” on the skin. Once they come into contact with a very small blood vessel, within which the vital liquid flows, they “hang” through hooked beaks and then detach themselves as soon as the meal is finished. There are two types: the “hard” ones, which have a sort of protective shield on the back in males (it is these that transmit meningoencephalitis), and the “soft” ones: these are more “fragile”, but can “steal” much more blood because they swell out of proportion. First aid after a tick bite involves pinching the head of the parasite with thin-tipped tweezers. The forceps should be positioned as close to the skin as possible. If necessary, the operation should be carried out using magnifying glasses. Once you have grabbed the head of the tick, you need to pull slowly but with constant force until the parasite is completely extracted.
Is critical disinfect carefully the area where the bite occurred: if a small part of the animal remains inside the skin, ask the doctor to carry out the procedure. The doctor However, he should be informed and contacted if redness, pain and fever remain after the tick has been completely eliminated.