If Italy went to war today who would be called up to be conscripted?

Our country is part of BORN and according to the Atlantic PactNATO's founding treaty in 1949, there is the so-called “collective defense system”enshrined inart.5according to which in the event of an attack on a Member State theItaly and the other member countries are obliged to intervene in its defense. Also due to its membership of the European Union, according to theart.42 of the Treaty establishing the EU (TEU), to implement the common defense and security policy, Italy and the other member countries make available their support, including military, with all the means in their possession following a unanimous resolution of the European Council. But if Italy entered the war who would be called to arms? Only the military forces or also ordinary citizens? In the event of a call to arms, article 52 of the Constitution establishes that refusal constitutes a crime.

Can Italy go to war? The cases in which it could happen

Soldiers of the Italian army during the Second World War. Credits: Bundesarchiv, Bild via Wikimedia commons.

There Italian constitution Article 11 states that: «Italy repudiates war as an instrument of offense against other peoples and as a means of resolving international disputes». However, this does not exclude the possibility of our country having recourse to weapons in the event of an attack defensive purposeas well as in the event of a military attack on a member state of the BORN and of theEuropean Union, international and supranational organizations of which Italy is part. L'art.78 of the Italian Constitution in fact it declares that the Chambers can decide on it state of war giving the government the necessary powers.
Therefore, if a conflict and the official entry into war of our country the first to be involved would be the official armed forces: Army, Navy, Carabinieri, Financial Police, Air Force. To be excluded instead they are the civil police forces, such as the Fire Brigade, Local Police and Penitentiary Police. Secondly, they would be called to arms former soldiers who have reached their term of service since less than 5 years. In Italy there has been a debate on the issue of “reservists”, military or trained personnel, on a voluntary basis, which should not exceed 10,000 units and who would be used mainly for logistical support and cooperation activities.

Who would be called to arms? The enlistment of civilians

If the volunteer military personnel Not should be in number sufficient one could then resort toenlistment of civilians: it is important to clarify that only if the staff on duty is insufficient would this eventuality be resorted to. Those who would be called to arms would be male citizens come on 18 to 45 years old declared fit for medical examinations on the basis of the draft lists.
In fact, at the end of the medical visitsthere are three possible outcomes: suitable and therefore that they can be enlisted, reviewablethat is, at the time of the visit they were not found to be suitable but can be subjected to new medical examinations and finally reformed not suitable to military service permanently. Pregnant women are excluded from compulsory military service lists.
Precisely regarding the insufficiency of military units available, a December 2023 a has been approved legislative decree on the revision of the military instrument which has increased since 150,000 to 160,000 units of the armed forces, starting from 1 January 2034.

nuclear depots in Italy

Parade on the occasion of the Italian Republic Day, Rome, 2 June 2006. Credits: Jollyroger via Wikimedia Commons.

Can the call to arms be refused? Compulsory military service in Italy

In case of call to arms it is not possible to avoid the call, unless there are serious health problems, which must be verified through specific medical visits. In fact, according to theart.52 ours Constitution “The defense of the homeland is the sacred duty of the citizen. Military service is compulsory within the limits and methods established by law. Its fulfillment does not prejudice the citizen's employment position or the exercise of political rights.
So in case of rejection it would be about crime. In Italy, compulsory military service was suspended with law no. 226 of 23 August 2004 for all citizens born after 1 January 1986 and which came into force in 2005. In reality, however the draft call was suspended, therefore not definitively eliminated. According to our military system, in fact, the military service can be implemented again by decree of President of the Republic in case the number of enlisted personnel is not reached. In this regard, on May 21st the Italian infrastructure minister Matteo Salvini presented a bill to the Chamber of Deputies introduce compulsory military service again in our country: six months of military or civilian service for the young people between 18 and 26 years old, to be carried out in Italy, in your own region. This proposal has reignited the debate on compulsory military service and on the voluntary involvement of young people in activities not only linked to military purposes but also to civil protection.